(July 1, 965 – March 6, 1040)

Alhazen Ibn al-Haytham was a superb polymath: an illustrious pacesetter who illuminated the paths of those who came after him. He is regarded as an ingenious icon across the Islamic world. Medieval Europeans nicknamed him Ptolemaeus Secundus (which literally translates to “Second Ptolemy”). Nonetheless, he was Ptolemy’s superior in every aspect of science and mathematics. His works spanned across a wide range of maths and mathematical physics. And they influenced lots of notable scientists such as Regiomontanus, Nicolaus Copernicus, Johannes Kepler, Isaac Newton, and many others. Alhazen was without question, one of the greatest and prolific scientists of the Middle Ages. His Book of Optics was hailed as the most important work on mathematical physics before Newton’s Principia Mathematica emerged (more than half a millennium later). He also advanced other areas such as: arithmetic, geometry and astronomy. Galileo Galilei, René Descartes and Leonardo da Vinci all borrowed ideas from his works. The same is true for Omar Khayyam and his protégé: Abu al-Fath al-Khazini. As an engineer, Alhazen was entrusted with the tasked of remedying the overflowing River Nile in Egypt: during the reign of Fatimid Caliph, Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah. Although most of his works were lost over the centuries, those that survived indicated that he foraged into fields as diverse as literature, biology, theology, psychology, philosophy, mechanics and medicine. For his role in founding modern science, asteroid 59239 Alhazen and the lunar crater Alhazen, were named after him. In 2015, the UNESCO remembered him as the “Father of Optics”.


  1. You appeared to know so much about this, like you wrote a book or something. I think that you drove the messages home. Your blog is magnificent, and I will be back.

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