(May 18, 1048 – December 4, 1131)
Influenced by Avicenna and Alhazen Ibn Al-Haytham, Omar Al-Khayyam gained prominence early in life. He produced excellent works on philosophy, poetry, astronomy, geometry and algebra; and is remembered today as one of the most outstanding scholars of the Middle Ages. His solutions for the problems of cubic (and exponential) equations were superb: as depicted in his highly influential book, the Treatise on Demonstration of Problems of Algebra. Likewise, his redresses in another book of his titled: On the Difficulties of Euclid’s Definitions improved upon those of Al-Haytham. And they helped in the development of Non-Euclidean Geometry several centuries later. Regarding astronomy, Omar Al-Khayyam made giant strides while working in the observatory which Sultan Malik Shah (I) sponsored. It was there that his team achieved fame for accurately measuring a year as having 365.2424 days. This was commendable: given its era. Needless to say that contemporary Persian calendar is based on his calculations. Also, his profound analysis of the Archimedes’ Principle, alongside his masterful handling of the Binomial Theorem, attests to his ingenuity. Although Omar Al-Khayyam’s poems are now more popular than his scientific works, the world stills appreciates his contributions to science. That explains why a lunar crater (called Omar Al-Khayyam) was named in his honor in 1970; and a minor planet (called 3095 OmarKhayyam) was also named after him in 1980.