(May 18, 1048 – December 4, 1131)
Influenced by Avicenna and Alhazen Ibn Al-Haytham, Omar Al-Khayyam gained prominence early in life. He produced excellent works on philosophy, poetry, astronomy, geometry and algebra; and is remembered today as one of the most outstanding scholars of the Middle Ages. His solutions for the problems of cubic (and exponential) equations were superb: as depicted in his highly influential book, the Treatise on Demonstration of Problems of Algebra. Likewise, his redresses in another book of his titled: On the Difficulties of Euclid’s Definitions improved upon those of Al-Haytham. And they helped in the development of Non-Euclidean Geometry several centuries later. Regarding astronomy, Omar Al-Khayyam made giant strides while working in the observatory which Sultan Malik Shah (I) sponsored. It was there that his team achieved famed for accurately measuring a year as having 365.2424 days. This was commendable: given its era. Needless to say that contemporary Persian calendar is based on his calculations. Although Omar Al-Khayyam’s poems are now more popular than his scientific works, the world stills appreciates his contributions to science. That explains why a lunar crater (called Omar Al-Khayyam) was named in his honor in 1970; and a minor planet (called 3095 OmarKhayyam) was also named after him in 1980.