(July 1, 1646 – November 14, 1716)
Leibniz was a universal genius, who contributed copiously to arts and sciences. His knack-for-numbers enabled him fine-tune the cumbersome arithmetics of the old binary system. Several analytical terms like: parameters, functions, variables, and coordinates are attributed to him. Russia’s czar (Peter the Great) sought his assistance in establishing Saint Petersburg Science Academy. His 17th century contemplation, in which he postulated that the earth is likely to contain a molten core, has been hailed as a scintillating milestone in modern geology. He also explored the scopes of mathematical physics and made advances in symbolic logic (which is a precursor to modern computing). In the process, he developed various gadgets which included the pinwheel calculator. He even anticipated Topology (as Geometria Situs) long before Leonhard Euler was born. Likewise, his formulation of the Principle of Least Action predated those of Euler and Pierre-Louis Maupertuis by four decades. Gottfried Leibniz discovered Infinitesimal Calculus independently of Isaac Newton, and wrote more extensively on it than Newton did. His integral-cum-differential notations are favored today because they are easier, more intuitive, and above all, better than Newton’s. These are remarkable: given the fact that he was career jurist who learned science as a hobby (from Christiaan Huygens, as well as by studying the works of Blaise Pascal which Huygens recommended). In view of his superb abilities and versatility, many scholars rank him among the smartest folks. In 1985, the lucrative Leibniz Prize, (one of the most esteemed awards in science), was endowed in his honor.