(May 18, 1048 – December 4, 1131)
Influenced by Avicenna and Alhazen Ibn Al-Haytham, Omar Al-Khayyam gained prominence early in life. He produced excellent works on philosophy, literature, astronomy, geometry and algebra; and is remembered today as one of the most outstanding scholars of the Middle Ages. His solutions for the problems of cubic (and exponential) equations were superb; as depicted in his highly influential book titled: The Treatise on Demonstration of Problems of Algebra. In fact, his discerning novelties there bolstered the long-held belief that he was the first person who conceived a general theory of cubic equations, as well as the first person to solve them geometrically: with regards to positive roots. Likewise, his redresses in another book of his titled: On the Difficulties of Euclid’s Definitions improved upon those of Al-Haytham. And they helped in the development of Non-Euclidean Geometry several centuries later. Regarding astronomy, Omar Al-Khayyam made giant strides while working in the observatory which Sultan Malik Shah (I) sponsored. It was there that his team achieved fame for accurately measuring a year as having 365.2424 days. This was commendable: given its era. Needless to say that contemporary Persian calendar is based on his calculations. Also, his profound analysis of the Archimedes’ Principle, alongside his masterful handling of the Binomial Theorem, attests to his ingenuity. Although Omar Al-Khayyam’s poems are now more popular than his scientific works, the world still appreciates his contributions to science. That explains why the Omar Al-Khayyam lunar crater and the 3095 OmarKhayyam minor planet were named after him.