(August 30, 1871 – October 19, 1937)
Often referred to as the second greatest experimental physicist (next to Faraday), Rutherford is famous for his ingenious exploits in Nuclear Chemistry and Atomic Physics. He was the first person who proved conclusively that radioactivity culminate in the transmutation of elements. He is also the first to use the terms “alpha particles”, “beta particles” and “gamma rays” in describing those ionizing radiations. His gold foil experiments which he ran from 1908 to 1913 enabled him to postulate what has become the “Rutherford Model”. This is particularly important, because its analyses indicated that the previously acclaimed “Plum Pudding Model” which Joseph John Thomson postulated in 1904, was wrong. (Note: the Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment is sometimes referred to as Geiger-Marsden Experiment. This is because Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden conducted the experiments. Rutherford directed and supervised them. He also supervised James Chadwick when Chadwick discovered neutrons). Apart from the aforementioned, several students he tutored and mentored later ranked among 20th century’s greatest scientists. Notable among these are: Niels Bohr, Otto Hahn, John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton. In his honor, the IUPAC named the synthetic (radioactive) element with atomic number of 104, rutherfordium, in 1997.