I am grateful to individuals and organizations whose help facilitated my research-hauls, which culminated in this publication. Profound appreciations are for the libraries and research centers of these institutions: University of Zurich, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, University of Applied Sciences Winterthur, University of Basel, University of Bern, University of Geneva, University of Lausanne, École Polytechnique Lausanne, Institut de Hautes Études Scientifiques Bures-sur-Yvette, Pierre and Marie Curie University Paris, École Polytechnique Palaiseau, École Normale Supérieure Lyon, University of Milan, Sapienza University of Rome, University of Pisa, University of Bologna, University of Salamanca, Humboldt University Berlin, Georg August University Goettingen, Goethe University Frankfurt, University of Vienna, Charles University Prague, University of Oxford, University of Cambridge, University of Glasgow, University of Melbourne, University of Southern Queensland, National University of Singapore, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Tsinghua University, Wuhan University, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beihang University, South China University of Technology Guangzhou, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Osaka University, University of Tokyo, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, University of Mumbai, University of Madras, University of Calcutta, Assuit University, Cairo University, Al-Azhar University Cairo, Alexandria University, University of al-Qarawiyyin Fez, University of Nigeria Nsukka, University of Ghana Accra, University of São Paulo, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of California 10-Uni-System, and a host of others. Kindly accept my succinct but heartfelt gratitude in lieu of the pages that would be needed to thank you all.


Ancient sciences comprised of maths, astronomy, medicine and metallurgy. Alchemy was an adventurous pseudoscience: pursued in the hope of economic guerdons. Before the 19th century, those core sciences we know now as physics, chemistry and biology were collectively referred to as natural philosophy. Only their applied forms (such as medicine and engineering) were clearly demarcated. This project traversed the entire fields of pure and applied sciences: dating from the Mesopotamian era to the dawn of 21st century AD. In other words, the 5000 years between 3000 BC and 2000 AD. As highlighted in the Introduction, my research which saw me visiting over 20 countries (and territories) took more than 15 years to conclude. The rankings were based on merit. My four criteria (each of which carries 25% of the total assessment points) are: overall ability, versatility, productivity and developmental influences. These are no doubt ideal. Though, sieving-out thousands of contenders was to say the least, onerous. Hence, this compilation (including extra revisitations and reassessments) took me years to finalize. Without bothering you with the dour intricacies, I will attest that (based on my experiences) assessments like these are abraded with inherent defects. But at the same time, they evince statistical accuracies, which enhance validity by diluting each of those defects. Comparative analyses can be arduous. The difficulties I encountered in the course of this assignment were immense. Notwithstanding, I did gain insights which still thrill me. Apart from visiting so many places, it was exhilarating to behold all those antique manuscripts whose stories inspired me. Thus, I have become even more knowledge-thirsty; and would continue to update this website and the related pages of, if I come across any new/vital data. For all intents and purposes, remains an ongoing project.


Based on the fact that historic injustices permeate our social and professional lives, it was imperative to ameliorate their impacts: whenever and wherever possible. Hence, in all instances where capable and/or promising individuals were systematically hindered—through sabotage, persecution, discrimination, etc., the circumstances of such hindrances were taken into account during my evaluations. Examples of those affected are: Hypatia of Alexandria, Marie Curie, Emmy Noether, Lise Meitner, George Washington Carver, Georg Cantor, Galileo Galilei, Jesse Ernest Wilkins Jr. and James Joseph Sylvester. I mollified by prioritizing their unhindered talents such as ingenuity, perseverance and resourcefulness over other ranking criteria.


Although I did my best in ranking those scientists (and mathematicians) as they deserved, I admit that it is practically impossible to obtain complete information on their respective lives and works. Therefore, this website’s contents are presented “as they stand”. You must condone any shortcoming therein. It is always difficult to comparatively rank people or things, and I do not claim perfection of any sort. Notwithstanding, my entire research were based on available facts; neither hypes nor myths were allowed any kind of role.


Maths and astronomy are the oldest sciences. Prior to European ascendancy, the ancient empires of Egypt, Babylon, China, India, Japan, Persia, Arabia, Maya, Inca, Aztec, Kush and Western Sudan dominated these sciences. But it is unfortunate that much of the intellectual glories went to their sovereigns; instead of the geniuses who drove the civilizations. As a result, little is known about them: thereby making it impossible to assess and rank them. Also, I perceived coincidences (during my research), which connected a number of scientists. For example, the two female pioneers of Radioactive Chemistry and Nuclear Physics, Marie Curie and Lise Meitner, share the November 7th birthday. Claude Bernard, Wilhelm Roentgen and Joseph Lister, all of whom advanced medical science, died on the 10th day of February. Wernher von Braun, Pierre-Simon Laplace and Emmy Noether share the March 23rd birthday. Two of the world’s most impressive polymaths, Gottfried Leibniz and Alhazen Ibn al-Haytham, share the July 1st birthday. Paul Ehrlich and Albert Einstein share the March 14th birthday. Louis Pasteur and Johannes Kepler do share the December 27th birthdays; whereas Pierre-Simon Laplace and Alessandro Volta died on the same day (i.e. Monday 5th of March 1827).


In the course of my research, studies after studies refuted the hackneyed notion that science and religion are in conflict. And as I journeyed through the centuries (till today), it became clear that the greatest and the most intelligent scientists were united in their belief in God. Their own emphatic statements: from the Renaissance period when our modern science began (till this day) are here to testify. See the facts below: listed according to the rankings on this website. (Expectedly, all the unranked persons have no web link).

  • “I can calculate the motion of heavenly bodies but not the madness of people. Atheism is so senseless and odious to mankind that it never had many professors. God created everything by number, weight and measure. I do not define time, space, place, and motion as being well-known to all.”
  • “Since the fabric of the universe is most perfect and is the work of a most wise God, nothing whatsoever takes place in the universe in which some rules of maxima and minima do not apply.”
  • “Our universe is the best possible one that God could have created. Miracles are not to be multiplied beyond necessity.”
  • “There are problems to which I attach greater importance than to those of mathematics; for example, our ethics and relationship with God. Their solutions lie beyond the scope of science. I succeeded not because of my own efforts, but by the grace of God.”
  • “Nothing is too wonderful to be true, if it is consistent with the laws of nature. I thank God that I will not rest my dying head upon speculations. Peace is a beautiful gift from God.”
  • “Mathematics is the language with which God wrote the universe.”
  • “The gift of mental power comes from God. If we focus our minds on it, we shall be in tune; and thus, benefit from that great gift.”
  • “Science without religion is lame. Religion without science is blind.”
  • “Persistence in scientific research leads to what I call instinct for truth. A little bit of science will take you away from God; but more science will bring you back to Him.”
  • “I have measured the earth, the skies, and all the planets. Now, let us glorify God through astronomy.”
  • “It is not by accident that the greatest thinkers of all ages were deeply religious. God exists whether we like it or not. Many scientists know this reality. As men who dedicated their lives to science, nobody will mistake us for fantasists.”
  • “I am a Christian, which means that I believe in the deity of Christ, like Tycho de Brahe, Copernicus, Descartes, Newton, Leibniz, Pascal, like all great astronomers and mathematicians.”
  • “The only desire which I can have is like David to serve my own generation by the will of God, and then fall asleep.”
  • “Of all the created comforts, God is the lender; you are the borrower, not the owner.”
  • “The universe was created for us by a supremely good and orderly God.”
  • “I know that faith is hard to prove; but I believe in God. There is a God-shaped vacuum in every heart.”
  • “The wisdom of God manifested in the works of creation.”
  • “An equation means nothing to me unless it expresses a thought of God.”
  • “My experiences with science led me to believe in God. Some people challenge science to prove the existence of God; but, we do not need a candlelight in order to see the sun.”
    —- WERNHER von BRAUN
  • “God alone is the author of all the motions in the world.”
  • “I love to think of nature as an unlimited broadcasting station, through which God speaks to us every hour, if we will only tune in.”
  • “I thank God who has given me this faith, in which I have the firm intention to live and die.”
  • “I have seen the eternal, infinite, omniscient, omnipotent God pass close by, and I knelt prostrate in adoration.”
  • “How great is God, and our science is just a trifle.”
  • “If you study science deep enough and long enough, it will force you to believe in God.”
  • “The object of mathematics is the honor of the human spirit. God ever arithmetizes.”
  • “In my most extreme fluctuations I have never been an atheist in the sense of denying the existence of a God.”
    —- CHARLES DARWIN (The initiator of Evolutionary Theory)
  • “Should a priest reject Relativity because it contains no authoritative exposition on the doctrine of the Trinity? Once you realize that the Bible does not purport to be a textbook of science, the old controversy between religion and science vanishes. There is no conflict between religion and science.”
    —- GEORGES LEMAȊTRE (The Catholic priest, Astronomer, and Professor of Mathematical Physics who initiated the Big Bang Theory)
  • “God is personal; yet, omnipresent. He is great source of strength: who made an enormous difference to me.”
    —- CHARLES HARD TOWNES (Provost and Eminent Professor of Quantum Electronics at M.I.T.; Discoverer of Laser Technology; 1964 Nobel Prize winner)
  • “God is truth. There is no incompatibility between science and religion. Both are seeking the same truth. Science shows that God exists.”
    —- DEREK BARTON (Regius Professor of Chemistry at Glasgow; 1969 Nobel Prize winner)
  • “A scientific discovery is a religious discovery. There is no conflict between science and religion. Our knowledge of God is made larger with every discovery we make.”
    —- JOSEPH HOOTON TAYLOR Jr. (McDonnell Professor of Physics at Princeton; 1993 Nobel Prize winner)
  • “Man’s efforts should always be goal-oriented: the Christian’s for the glory of God. In view of this, I hope that my studies benefited my neighbors; and ultimately, glorified God.”
    —- MARIA GAETANA AGNESI (Eminent scholar and humanitarian; as well as the first woman awarded a professorial chair of mathematics in a European university)
  • “God has given us an incredibly fascinating world to live in and explore.”
    —- WILLIAM DANIEL PHILLIPS (Distinguished Physics Professor at Maryland; 1997 Nobel Prize winner)
  • “I believe the universe is governed by the laws of science. The laws may have been decreed by God, but God does not intervene in breaking the laws.”
    —- STEPHEN HAWKING (Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge, whose atheistic antics ceased after he went and received Godly blessings from Pope Benedict XVI)
  • “We know that nature is described by the best of all possible mathematics because God created it.”
    —- ALEXANDER MARKOVICH POLYAKOV (Distinguished Physics Professor at Moscow and Princeton)
  • “The equations of physics have in them incredible simplicity, elegance, and beauty. That in itself is sufficient to prove to me that there must be a God who is responsible for these laws, and responsible for the universe.”
    —- PAUL DAVIES (Distinguished Physics Professor at London and Cambridge)
  • “To all of us who hold the Christian belief that God is truth, anything that is true is a fact about God, and mathematics is a branch of theology.”
    —- HILDA PHOEBE HUDSON (One of 20th century’s leading female mathematicians; and the first woman to address the International Congress of Mathematicians)
  • “The God of the Bible is also the God of the genome. God can be found in the cathedral or in the laboratory.”
    —- FRANCIS COLLINS (Eminent Geneticist, Director of USA’s National Institutes of Health, and former atheist)
  • “Truth is like a lion. You don’t have to defend it. Let it loose, and it will defend itself.”
    —- SAINT AUGUSTINE (Bishop of Hippo Regius: i.e. the modern Algerian city of Annaba. He is one of the most brilliant theologians of all time)


My name is Valentine Oduenyi. I live in Switzerland, and enjoy learning. My four degrees from universities in three continents are just for official purposes. I consider myself a perpetual student. Accordingly, being an independent researcher is my favorite pastime. And the liberty to explore any discipline is invigorating. Perhaps, that is why studying is a lot more intriguing to me now than when I was at school. As an omnivore, I consume Sciences, Arts, and everything in-between. For a glimpse into my perspectives, click on this link: Thanks for visiting, I wish you all the best.